From 2001 to 2018, all the political figures of prominence in Peru have been splattered by the Odebrecht scandal. And the outcome with a view to the presidential elections of 2021 is still an unknown. Nicolás Maduro’s management, which ends on January 10, has been rejected in the evaluation carried out by the NGO December 2018 Calendar South Africa Venezuela, which defines as “kleptocracy” the system of theft and corruption that has been installed in the 576 state and service companies, which compromises the lives of Venezuelans. The serious thing is that the payroll of employees of public companies consumes 8.6% of the regular budget of the Venezuelan nation without working. In recent years these companies have received more than 500,000 million dollars, “without counting the resources allocated via parafiscal funds,” bleeding out the few incomes that enter the country for their oil exports.
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The Transparencia Venezuela study, of about 1,300 folios, took two years to do and had allies from Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. His team of researchers revealed that state companies and ministries are opaque and closed, “do not give information or figures or allow them to review the accounting books.”
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The set of public companies acquired during the presidencies of Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro has presented negative results, they are bankrupt, insolvent and their balance sheets are in red. They were acquired through expropriations, confiscations, nationalizations and re-nationalizations.
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Mercedes De Freites, executive director of Transparencia, affirmed that the “mother” of all the corruption of the state companies is Petróleos de Venezuela (Pdvsa) for having financed the corruption of the rest of the public companies.
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He gave the example of overpricing. In 2010, Chávez approved an electric emergency decree that allowed the state companies Corpoelec, PDVSA and the Ministry of Electric Power, all of them directed by a single person, Rafael Ramírez, to acquire equipment without bidding.
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“The investigation determined that between 1999 and 2014, 37,691 million dollars were allocated for 40 projects for the purchase of equipment and construction of facilities, a surcharge of 23,033 million dollars was discovered, 157%.” (Those responsible as Nervis Villalobos are imprisoned in Madrid).
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He assured that the Maduro regime has used the crisis to enrich itself, “it is an opportunity to steal the shortage of food and medicine, and also to traffic with the preferential dollars in imports.”
Despite the difficulties to thoroughly investigate and audit the companies, the NGO has managed to advance with the contribution of anonymous employees. Of the 576 companies “160 were analyzed from four sectors that impact the quality of life of Venezuelans: the agri-food, December 2018 Calendar South Africa, mining and metallurgy and public services. 74.4% present public complaints of corruption and bad practices. “